This disease affects the central area of the retina, the macula.

The most accepted theory about the formation of macular hole (BM) is the tangential traction and anterior-posterior on the macular area. Slowly occur a thinning of the macular layer until the occurrence of a small opening.
The MH is rated in degrees of evolution and gravity. The diagnosis is confirmed through examination of OCT (picture below) and their treatment is surgical: Vitrectomy peeling and gas injection.
Important: The current surgical techniques guarantee a success rate above 80% closure of the MH, but that does not mean an improvement in vision in the same proportion. Therefore, operate as soon as diagnosed delivers better results.
Difficulty: The patient should stay looking down during the first 5 days after surgery to keep the gas injected into contact with the posterior retina.

Macular hole (fundus)
Macular hole (take OCT)