More Eye Pathologies related to the Retina:

More Eye Pathologies related to the Retina:

Cataract

Lens opacities: The eye has a natural lens positioned in the anterior eye segment, located just behind the iris, better visualized with the dilation of the pupil. Cataract Surgery has good results when used an artificial lens, the IOL (intraocular lens) to correct the grade corresponding to the lens to be extracted. The surgery is the phacoemulsification and it is performed through a small opening of 2.5 mm without suture.

Glaucoma
Destructive disease of the optic nerve: Its main feature is an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP). Glaucoma is a serious disease with progressive, irreversibly, loss of visual acuity and field. The preventive treatment, and IOP control allows the preservation of vision and visual field.


Rheumatic diseases
Rheumatic diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lupus, Becet disease, etc.. Affect the eyes and especially the retinal function. Patients who have such diseases, and taking medicines such as chloroquine, which also affect the retina and causes visual disturbances, could have loss vision. All patients with rheumatic diseases should be accompanied by an ophthalmologist.

 

Retinal Membranes

Retinal membranes occur in patients of all ages. These Membranes are corrected by surgical procedure called Vitrectomy and Peeling. The most common symptoms are decreased vision distortion and blurring the images. The OCT (picture below) identify the membrane and measure its thickness to adequately plan the surgery. The doctor will conduct tests which differentiate the membranes of other pathologies such as: AMD and diabetic retinopathy (described above) 


Pre retinal membrane (OCT) 
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Pre retinal membrane (fluorescein angiography)

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Retinal Detachment

Retinal detachment is a serious eye disease and lead to several visual losses.

To understand the retinal detachment is necessary to know that the retina detached is the membrane formed by neuroglial cells (neuro-sensory retina) that cover inside the eyeball and adhered totally to the ocular wall, where are the other layers of the retina. (Photo 1).
When there is a rupture or formation of a hole in the neuro-sensory retina, begins the flowed of liquid from the globe cavity through the opening (rupture or hole) creating a new space between the sensory layer and pigmented epithelium retina (eye wall).
The treatment of retinal detachment is summarized in three steps: 
1 - closing the rupture retina
2 – creating an adherence
3 – and removal of sub retinal fluid. Different techniques and equipment are used to achieve this goal.

The correct treatment of retinal detachment allows the recovery of visual function, but usually there are losses in relation to preview vision.

 

figure - superior retinal detachment

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Diabetic and Retina

The retina is a layer of specialized cells inside the eyes; through it we obtain sharp images, colors and details of objects.

In diabetic patients, after several years of illness, even controlled, become a decrease of irrigation by the impairment of retinal blood vessels. The result of this is the formation of abnormal vessels that do not support the blood pressure with rupture, leading to internal bleeding in the retina and inflammation (swelling) of central retina, the macula. The end result is a gradual loss of visual function (blurring of images). 

All people with Diabetes Mellitus are subject to this problem, but the disease does not manifest itself equally for everyone. Some cases are more serious and others less. Individual factors like genetic can explain this.
Clinical examination, angiography and OCT (optical tomography) helps to classify the lesions and propose the most appropriate treatment. 
The most common treatment is the use of laser. It is performed by applications (sessions) outpatients. 
Another form of treatment is vessels growth factors inhibitors drugs (anti-VGF) like bevacizumab (Avastin) and ranibizumab (Lucentis). It is of drugs that inhibit the formation of neovascular lesions and decrease the edema Retinal. However, not all cases can use these substances. 

The surgery is also widely used as treatment. 

Every eye treatments will be successful only if there is an efficient clinical control. Therefore, treatment should be undertaken with the collaboration of professionals from different specialties. 

The guidance of an experienced retina specialist is the main factor to obtain the best result of existing treatments

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Macular Degeneration

ARMD – Age Related Macular Degeneration

The retina is many layers of specialized cells inside the eyeball. The macula is the central area of the retina. Through the macula we get the sharp images, colors and details of objects. 
In some people the cells of the macula become degenerated and the result is a loss of visual function (blurring of images), and progressive central loss vision. 

All persons over 60 years of age are subject to this problem, but the disease does not manifest itself equally for everyone. Some cases are more serious than others. This happened by individual influences (genetic and environment factors). 

Modern medicine is well equipped for an efficient diagnosis on examination with photography methods using angiography and OCT (optical tomography), the medical expert should be prepared to classify the lesions and propose the most appropriate treatment for each case. 

One form of treatment currently used is the use Bevacizumab (Avastin) and Ranabizumab (Lucentis). These are drugs that inhibit the formation of the lesion. However, not all cases get better with these substances and not all patients can be treated with Avastin and Lucentis. 

Another form of treatment for wet ARMD is photodynamic therapy (PDT). This procedure uses a substance called Visudyne associated with application of a laser stimulator, resulting in lesion regression. 

Also as part of therapies is Triamcinolone, used normally associated with other forms of treatment. 

The guidance of an experienced retina specialist is the main factor to obtain the best result of existing treatments

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